Simulation Environment

(for learning to solve medical problems)

The Cardiovascular System

the computer simulation program CARDIO
(as an interactive model-driven applet
with intelligent feedback) by R. Min, J. de Goeijen & J. Sikken (University of Twente), and T. Coleman (University of Mississippi);
Enschede, 1st version: April 1998; last updated: April 2004.

Wait some seconds. The applet will be loaded.

Press the button - in the middle - to start the simulation. You have maximal 10 days simulation time to experience with this young healthy volunteer.

Running the simulation: Making an intervention: Looking to the variables:

The time in the simulator is running from 0 to 10 days. The time-step is 10 minutes.

REMARK 1: The model include at least 60 variables which can be displayed (at the right) and 25 important parameters which can be used for interventions in the model (at the left).

REMARK 2: In this applet 7 variables will be displayed: arterial pressure, urine output, cardiac output, etc. The simulation time is displays in minutes. 10 days is 14400 minutes.

REMARK 3: The applet has 8 possibilities for intervention: parameters for creeting diseases, parameters for therapies, and a case-selector: case 1, 2 and 3.

REMARK 4: For actual use this pre-prototype applet you need our manuals whith the instructions, exercises, cases, texts, explinations, etc. (R. Min, the cardiovascular system, the heart as a pump; the computer simulation program CARDIO; Springer Verlag Berlin; 1991; also published on the web: see button Backgrounds.)

Screendump of an experiment with heart failure (Enschede, 28/4/2004).

List with all variables, modelparameters, constants and possible interventions

Name, mnemonic, units and remarks

1. Clinical - Diagnosis and Treatment.

These variables are the only ones available during clinical simulations.

2. Physiological Variables.

These variables are used during physiological studies. Some units are familiar, some are normalized, i.e. usual value is 1.

3. Interventions.

These are meant to mimic possible therapeutic procedures. Usually a value of 0 represents no intervention, while 1.0 represents the maximum possible value. All values between 0 and 1.0 are permitted, representing graded therapy.

4. Additional Interventions - for physiological demonstration.

These variables are normally not within the domain of the physician

5. Additional Physiological Variables.

These variables are important to the accurancy of the model but are not often followed.

6. Initial conditions.

These variables supply the values of certain important variables as solution of the model is begun.

Enschede, may 2000; updated oct. 2004.