Working-, Doing- or Learning-Environments
Designing Dynamical Learning Environments for Simulation: Micro-Worlds & Applets on the World Wide Web
.. in relation to parallelism and the parallel instruction theory
Dr. ir. Rik Min
researcher / designer / developer
Faculty of Educational Science and Technology (EDTE), University of Twente (UT)
PO Box 217; 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. E-mail: Min@edte.utwente.nl
- part 1: simulation and micro-worlds;
- part 2: building blocks;
- part 3: concept of parallelism and the 'PI' theory.
- More about the Parallelism concept
- More about the 'Parallel Instruction' theory
- More about the cognitive aspects
- More about our systems based on our design theory
- Web-based Materials
- Model-driven Simulations
- Parallel Instruction theory (a design theory)
- Parallelism as a concept
- Open Learning Environments (with parallel instructions)
- Embedded Simulation Environments
- Interactive Scientific Papers (ISP)
- Higher order Courseware
- Higher order Web Sites
- One of the oldest and commonest forms of learning;
- Childeren become aware of relations between words and physical quantities;
- Children and young adults pick up a lot (without a lot of effort);
- Piaget and Papert;
- Recently, complete scientific schools have arisen around micro-worlds, constructivism and concept mapping;
The user (the learner: a pupil, a student, a trainee, etc.)
Simulation site with dynamical parts and two parallel windows (working example)
(and building blocks)
- library 'WebLib' with special Java-applets:
- library 'SimLib' with special Java-applets:
with very complex and intelligent components (simulations);
- library 'WebStuff' with elements:
for reusing this elements.
web-based multimedial model-driven simulations
- Model-driven computer simulation;
- Doing (!), working (!) and/or learning (!) environments;
- Intelligent feedback ('ICS'): texts, audio or video;
- Coaching: instructions, exercises, problems, cases, etc.;
- Flexable, Actual, Just in time;
- Re-usable; Re-designable;
- It brings phenomena's from the world to children.
Methods & Techniques
- Applets as building blocks
- Libraries: WebLib and SimLib
- E-Learning and Web-Based Training (WBT)
- Intelligent feedback (ICS)
Principle of model-driven
Principle of model-driven simulations
Principle of ICS
Principle of intelligent feedback (ICS), here: video fragments
The instructor ('Rik') (parallel)
The concept model and the interventions (parallel)
'Maurice' and his complaints (parallel)
The principle of an ICS learning environment, based on model-driven simulation, to get beter insight in a realistic dynamical phenomenon and insight between input and output, or parameters and variables, of that phenomenon
Simulation site with dynamical parts and four parallel windows (and ICS) (working example)
Problem (a) and Instruction (b)
Parallelism --> Split Attention --> Cognitive Load
problem (a) and instruction (b)
- Sweller, 1990: the cognitive load theory
- Paivio, 1990: the dual-code theory
- Chandler & Sweller, 1991: the split-attention effect (or theory)
- Mayer, 1995: the multimedia learning theory
- Xerox & Steve Jobs, 1980: the desktop philosophy (or theory)
- Min, 1992: the parallel instruction theory
1. first order parallelism.
2. second order parallelism.
3. A big web-page (surface bigger then 100%)
x varies between 1 to 30 cm or more
The concept of the PI-theory:
The PI-theory in four points: So far it is assumed that the usefulness of parallelism in open do environments is
- 1. the user's limited short memory as regards details or loose components; because the monitor always wipes out the image contents partly or entirely when the next image is shown;
- 2. the user wants to, must and can compare; by comparing things from the past physically to things of the present;
- 3. the user wants to gain insight into cause/result relations; through repeated verification and compare (with other things);
- 4. the user wants to create his own frame of reference and should be able to do so; by putting things that pass by on the screen side by side (by means of windows) and comparing them.
If you don't give attention to this points or this theory in the design of your multimedial, hypermedial, web-based software product, your product will failed.
- Benshoof, L.A., en S. Hooper (1993). The effectes of single- and multiple-Window Presentation on
Archievements During Computer-Based Instruction'. J. of Comp. Based Inst. vol. 20, no. 4, p. 113-117.
Benshoof and Hooper investigated the effects of using single- and multiple-window presentations on archievement and window-use.
- Mayer, R. E. and R. Moreno (2000). A split attention Effect in multimedia Learning: Evidence for Dual Processing Systems in Working Memory. J. of Educ. Psych., Vol. 90, no. 2, p. 312-320.
Mayer and Moreno about multimedia learning and modality principles. Dual code theory? Cognitive principles of multimedia design: split attention effect and other effects.
- Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J. J. G., and Paas, F. G. W. C. (1998). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design. Educational Psychological Review, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 251-296.
The cognitive load theory assumes a limited capicity working memory that includes partially independent subcomponents to deal with auditory/verbal material and visual/2- of 3-dimensional information.
- Moreno, R., and R.E. Mayer (1999). Cognitive Principles of Multimedia Learning: the role of modality and Cogniguity. J. of Educ. Psychology, vol. 91, no. 2. pp. 358-368.
Split attention effect; multimedia learning.
- Paivio, A., (1986). Mental representation: A dual coding approach. Oxford England. Oxford University Press.
The article about the Dual Code Theory. Text and visual information (parallel). Integrating texts and visuals.
- Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive Load Theory. Learning & Instruction. vol. 4; pp 295-312.
The cognitive load theory
- Mousavi, S. Y., Low, R., & Sweller, J. (1995). Reducing cognitive load by mixing auditory and visual
presentation modes. Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 87, pp. 319-334.
The use of partly visual mode of presentation for geometry worked examples. The logic was based on the split attention effect and the effect of presentation modality on working memory. Split attention between multiple sources of information.
- Moreno, R., and R.E. Mayer (1999). Multimedia supported Metaphors for meaning Making in Mathematics. Cognition & Instruction, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 215-248.
Mayer and Moreno (1999) about hih-archieving students and low-archieving students.
- Diehl & Mills (1995). The effects of interaction with the device described by procedural text on recall,
true/falls, and task performance. Memory & Cognition.
Diehl & Mills about "information available while reading leads to differential development of representations in memory, which, in turn, causes differences in perfomance on various measures". A task is: 'read and do' or 'read and see experimenter do' or 'read and imagine' or 'read and see' or 'read only'.
- Ainsworth, S. (1999).
The functions of multiple representations. Computers and Education, 33, 131-152.
About multiple representations of the same problem or the same instruction.
- The phenomena of the Cardiovascular System (2 versions)
- The phenomena of the Water and Salt regulation in the human body
- The phenomena of the Dutch Economy
- The phenomena of an Sun heater: xxx
- The phenomena of an Transistor: xxx
- The phenomena of Resistances and Capacitors (RC-networks - Filters)
- The phenomena of an Fishing Pond
Example version a
'Fish pound'/'Vijver', an e-Learning environment for simulation, based on a mathematical model implemented in Java and build with our JavaTHESIS system, inclusive our library 'SimLib', according to the Parallel Instruction theory.
Example version b
The same 'Fish pound'/'Vijver'. Left: some parallel instructions (exercises).
Example version c
The same 'Fish pound'/'Vijver'. Right: a parallel notebook for hypotheses; works on basis of cookies. (Sometimes called scratchpad.)
Example version d
The same 'Fish pound'/'Vijver'. Embedded in a tele-course in our course managment system: TeleTOP (more embedded; embedded in courseware)
Example with a lot of parallel instructions
- build your own Libraries (as WebLib and SimLib)
- Connect Applets with Applets
- Connect Input Applets with Output Applets (with events)
- Use Java and 'SimLib' for model-driven Simulations
- Use JavaTHESIS (Min, Sikken, de Goeijen; 1997 - 2001)
- Use templates or shells (as in JavaTHESIS and WebLib)
Enschede: Erfurt, june 27, 2002.