Designing Dynamical Learning Environments for Simulation: Micro-Worlds & Applets on the World Wide Web

dr. ir. Rik Min
researcher / designer / problem solver

Faculty of Educational Science and Technology (EDTE), University of Twente (UT)
Postbus 217; 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. E-mail: Min@edte.utwente.nl

http://users.edte.utwente.nl/min

Some theories
about
parallelism and 'parallel instruction'
(in relation to cognitive load)





1

Principle of split attention / parallelism:

Two different parts on this screen: region A and region B.





2

Example of a task where the attention is split in a problem and an instruction (A and B):


An example of split attention in a math-task accoording Mousavi, Low, & Sweller (1995).

More examples about split attention and parallellism (Min) (in accordance). (extra)



3

Principle of parallelism:


The principle of parallelism.

The research question is: "What is the optimum of x?"





4

Parallel flows or views: principle of a complex learning environment with more than 9 information flows parallel.


The use of all the perception channals of the user: eyes, ears, etc.
(comination of first and second order parallelism)




5

Solution: two windows on one screen:


With extra window; the surface is bigger then 100%
(2 order parallelism)
x varies between 1 to 30 cm or more.


With extra window; the surface is bigger then 100%
(2 order parallelism)
x varies between 1 to 30 cm or more.


With 2 or more viewports; the surface is 100%
(1 order parallelism)
x varies between 1 to 40 cm or more.


Examples:
from everyday life (photo's)


6

Solution: one, long web-page on a screen:


A big web-page.
(The surface is bigger then 100%.)
We call that: virtual parallelism.
X varies between 1 to 30 cm or more.


Example:
5 experiments (with a practical tasks)
Example: 5 experiments (with a theoretical tasks)


7

Linear media (serial media)


"What you have seen (in de past); you have forgotten (now)."

Our short time memory is the problem in computer-based problem solving (with a small screen).





8

Problem with frame-by-frame or screen-by-screen: your memory


On top: frames every 1/25 second (as in movies).

Design problem: If the frame and the content of the frame is gone: then the user want to see the information for using them. In problem-solving you need parallellism and the sequences must be controled by the user.





9





10

The concept of the PI-theory:





11

The concept of parallelism in our learning environments


The user sees a lot of information from a lot of areas (Min, 19xx).



12

The concept of our parallel instruction (as input)


The user gets a lot of information from a lot of media (Min, 19xx). All this parallel instruction is input; and necessary for starting the learning sessions. (The output is for continuing the learning sessions).




13

More information

== more about parallellism and the PI theory ==
== parallellism and the PI theory ==


14

xxxx

xxxx a summery of one of the next papers in relation to the two articles of Min (1992) (1994); xxx to the relations to parallelism and the parallel instruction theory (of Min).

Enschede, 2002; updated: jan. 15, 2003.