Designing Dynamical Learning Environments for Simulation: Micro-Worlds & Applets on the World Wide Web
researcher / designer / problem solver
Faculty of Educational Science and Technology (EDTE), University of Twente (UT)
Postbus 217; 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. E-mail: Min@edte.utwente.nl
Febr. 3, 2003
Drill & practice
Higher order web sites
Higher order courseware
Cardiovascular system (version xx)
with some information, pictures and schemes.
Transistor (version xx)
with a lot of (Dutch) information, pictures and schemes.
Axon (version xx)
with a lot of (Dutch) information, pictures and schemes.
Cascade (animated version)
with model-driven animation
(to demonstrate the power of the concept of model-driven animation and our WebLib technology)
Top-down versus bottom-up thinking
Top-down courses: designing (with FrontPage or Fusion).
There are three methods to develop 'higher order web-sites'. That are:
- 1. Authoring systems (as FrontPage, Fusion, DreamWeaver)
- 2. Authoring languages (as HTML)
Bottom-up designing, developing & constructing
Different elements / loose components:
A file is text string
A html-file is one string of characters...
A HTML file is a string with tags and separate elements
The web: the browser 'pulls the string' trough the line; byte for byte.
The tag IMG reads a jpg-file; the tag APPLET reads the machine-code of the applet.
Method: Building blocks
Complex applets versus simple applets
'Smart' versus 'silly'
Cascade (animation with fixed object)
Sinus, cosinus (animation with fixed object)
Paddle (animation with programmed object)
(with Flash and ActionScript)
(with Flash & ActionScript)
Gagné, Briggs en Wager (1987) have learn us that learning environments, and so multimedia products, have to have a lot of characteristics for succes. This are:
- 1. gaining attention
- 2. informing learner of objective (state the objectives)
- 3. stimulating recall of prerequisites
- 4. presenting stimulus materials (present information)
- 5. provide learning guidance
- 6. elicit expected performance
- 7. provide feedback
- 8. assess performance, and
- 9. enhancing retention and transfer.
When the development of a simulation product is finished?
Book of R. Min, page 75.
- 1. designing specialist (project leader) (you)
- 2. content specialist (the teacher)
- 3. modelling specialist (me)
- 4. simulation specialist (me and you)
- 5. programming specialist (here: Ben)
Examples of simulations with parallel 'information' or 'instruction'
Transistor (version RM)
without a lot of information, pictures and schemes on one web-page.
Transistor (version MMOP)
with parallel instruction (explanation) about AC (alternating current; the input/output signal) and DC (direct current; the electric current) and 'amplifing' uo = A*ui
Boiler / Sun heater (version INF)
(runs only in Internet Explorer)
built with DreamWeaver and Flash.
Examples of exercises and/or cases:
- Exercise 1: What do you think about the 'pressure in the aorta' (Pao) if the parameter 'periferal resistance' (Rp) become more than 100% (from 1.25 to 1.8)? (that is the disease sclerosis or hardening of the arteries in the rest of the body; not the aorta)
- Exercise 2: What do you think about the 'pressure in the aorta' (Pao) if the 'compliance' (Cao) become less than 100% (from 1.1 to 0.55)? (that is the disease sclerosis or hardening of the aorta)
- Exercise 3: What do you think about the 'pressure in the aorta' (Pao) if the 'compliance' (Cao) become less than 100% (from 1.1 to 0.55) and the maximal left ventricle become more than 100% (from 1.2 to 1.8)? (that is the disease hypertension and sclerosis in the vessels) (Good hypothesis: the heart compensates the lower blood flow through the body by pomping the blood under higher pressure)
CARDIO (healthy human body):
- Exercise: What do you think about the 'cardiac output' (CO) if the parameter 'heart strength' ('basically') (P2 HSB) become less than 100% (per example 70%)?
- Diagnose: heart failure (light) ('compensated' by holding/saving liquid in the body; so there is less urine output and swelling feets) ('ECFV'!)
- Therapy: digitalis (DIGI)
CARDIO (case 'Marie') (runs only in Internet Explorer):
- Case: What is happens here? What do you think?
- Diagnose (hypothesis): hypertension (high arterial pressure: AP 120 mmHg)
- Therapy: medicine 1, urinate tablets; diuretics
- Therapy: medicine 2, wide open the vessels; the throughput
- Therapy: medicine 3, beta-blocker
- Exercise 1: What do you think about the temparature of the water in the upper vessel if the primary pump (Fp) doubled?
- Good hypothesis: The upper segments become warmer; more quickly than before.
- Exercise 2: What do you think about the temparature of the water in the upper vessel if you use to much warm water during the night (or the day)?
- Exercise 1: Do you see the difference of the concentration of a medicine in the blood (red) between the way of infusion (green) with a catheter and the way with an injection (and the same medicine)? Can you explain the difference?
- Good solution (technical): two windows parallel.
- Good hypothesis (pharmacokinetical): now time for all the drugs to go in the body, so all the drugs stays in the blood for a while.
- Exercise 2: What do you think about the concentrations if the infuse-time becomes longer than before?
- Good hypothesis: more drugs; dangerous with this dose.
But not here: this is an anaesthesia (pentobarbital)
FOOD CHAIN - FISH POND:
- Exercise 1: Run the model for 10 days. Change on day 1: P and N from 0 to 0.1 and later again with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8.
P: N: O:
0.0 0.0 ...
0.1 0.1 ...
0.2 0.2 ...
0.4 0.4 ...
0.8 0.8 ...
- What do you think that's happens?
- Good hypothesis: lineair relation
Enschede, febr. 3, 2003