Designing Dynamical Learning Environments for Simulation: Micro-Worlds & Applets on the World Wide Web
researcher / designer / problem solver
Faculty of Educational Science and Technology (EDTE), University of Twente (UT)
Postbus 217; 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. E-mail: R.Min@hetnet.nl (Acone)
Gagné, Briggs en Wager (1987) have learn us that learning environments, and so multimedia products, have to have a lot of characteristics for succes. This are:
- 1. gaining attention
- 2. informing learner of objective (state the objectives)
- 3. stimulating recall of prerequisites
- 4. presenting stimulus materials (present information)
- 5. provide learning guidance
- 6. elicit expected performance
- 7. provide feedback
- 8. assess performance, and
- 9. enhancing retention and transfer.
When the development of a simulation product is finished?
Book of R. Min, page 75.
- 1. designing specialist (project leader) (you)
- 2. content specialist (the teacher)
- 3. modelling specialist (me)
- 4. simulation specialist (me and you)
- 5. programming specialist (here: Ben)
Examples of simulations with parallel 'information' or 'instruction'
Transistor (version RM)
without a lot of information, pictures and schemes on one web-page.
Transistor (version MMOP)
with parallel instruction (explanation) about AC (alternating current; the input/output signal) and DC (direct current; the electric current) and 'amplifing' uo = A*ui
Boiler / Sun heater (version INF)
(runs only in Internet Explorer)
built with DreamWeaver and Flash.
Examples of exercises and/or cases:
- Exercise 1: What do you think about the 'pressure in the aorta' (Pao) if the parameter 'periferal resistance' (Rp) become more than 100% (from 1.25 to 1.8)? (that is the disease sclerosis or hardening of the arteries in the rest of the body; not the aorta)
- Exercise 2: What do you think about the 'pressure in the aorta' (Pao) if the 'compliance' (Cao) become less than 100% (from 1.1 to 0.55)? (that is the disease sclerosis or hardening of the aorta)
- Exercise 3: What do you think about the 'pressure in the aorta' (Pao) if the 'compliance' (Cao) become less than 100% (from 1.1 to 0.55) and the maximal left ventricle become more than 100% (from 1.2 to 1.8)? (that is the disease hypertension and sclerosis in the vessels) (Good hypothesis: the heart compensates the lower blood flow through the body by pomping the blood under higher pressure)
CARDIO (healthy human body):
- Exercise: What do you think about the 'cardiac output' (CO) if the parameter 'heart strength' ('basically') (P2 HSB) become less than 100% (per example 70%)?
- Diagnose: heart failure (light) ('compensated' by holding/saving liquid in the body; so there is less urine output and swelling feets) ('ECFV'!)
- Therapy: digitalis (DIGI)
CARDIO (case 'Marie') (runs only in Internet Explorer):
- Case: What is happens here? What do you think?
- Diagnose (hypothesis): hypertension (high arterial pressure: AP 120 mmHg)
- Therapy: medicine 1, urinate tablets; diuretics
- Therapy: medicine 2, wide open the vessels; the throughput
- Therapy: medicine 3, beta-blocker
- Exercise 1: What do you think about the temparature of the water in the upper vessel if the primary pump (Fp) doubled?
- Good hypothesis: The upper segments become warmer; more quickly than before.
- Exercise 2: What do you think about the temparature of the water in the upper vessel if you use to much warm water during the night (or the day)?
- Exercise 1: Do you see the difference of the concentration of a medicine in the blood (red) between the way of infusion (green) with a catheter and the way with an injection (and the same medicine)? Can you explain the difference?
- Good solution (technical): two windows parallel.
- Good hypothesis (pharmacokinetical): now time for all the drugs to go in the body, so all the drugs stays in the blood for a while.
- Exercise 2: What do you think about the concentrations if the infuse-time becomes longer than before?
- Good hypothesis: more drugs; dangerous with this dose.
But not here: this is an anaesthesia (pentobarbital)
FOOD CHAIN - FISH POND:
- Exercise 1: Run the model for 10 days. Change on day 1: P and N from 0 to 0.1 and later again with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8.
P: N: O:
0.0 0.0 ...
0.1 0.1 ...
0.2 0.2 ...
0.4 0.4 ...
0.8 0.8 ...
- What do you think that's happens?
- Good hypothesis: lineair relation
Enschede, jan. 29, 2002